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"Why Old Science Won't Work in the New Century"

Peter Cochrane, Chief Technologist, British Telecom (UK)


"Scientific Databases and Education: A Revolution About to Happen"

Dr. Bohlen, Fachinformationszentrum Chemie Gmbh (Germany)

"50 Years of Expanding Knowledge: Complexity Control and New Frontiers"

Jacques-Emile Dubois, Past President, CODATA (France)

"The Role of Data and Information in a Sustainable Society"

John Enderby, Physical Secretary and Vice-President of the Royal Society (UK)

Analysis of trends during the period from 1950 to the early 1990s shows that the world population has increased by a factor of 2.2, grain production by 2.7, energy by 4.4 and economic performance by 5.1. At the same time, lifestyles of the affluent countries of Western Europe and North America strongly influence the aspirations of the less developed countries. On the other hand European Commissioner Patten reminds us to regard sustainable development as 'living (on Earth) as though we were intending to stay for good, not just visiting for the weekend'.

It follows that unless the more developed countries share their new scientific knowledge and the primary data on which it is based, the environmental damage from the increase in consumption and quality of life to which the less developed countries aspire, could actually outpace the improvements brought about by new technology.

Likewise, high quality data on energy, water, food and materials both at level of production, (including the exploitation of new methodologies arising from research and development) and consumption need to be widely and freely available to all nations. The wealthy countries need to be aware of the consequences of their own proposed developments whilst the less developed countries need access to data which allow them to leapfrog to new technologies and achieve more growth with less damage to the environment.

"The Impact of Aviation on the Atmosphere and Global Climate: The Role of Data and Modeling"

Oleg Favorsky and A.Starik, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia)

The reality of many statements about the global climate getting warmer and ozone layer getting thinner depend on the breadth and depth of the authors analysis and on the reliability of the used data. Only thorough and detailed investigations can contribute to a realistic estimation of the influence of the civilization upon the climate.

The industrial operation for the last years results in change of gaseous and aerosol composition of Earth's atmosphere. One of the direct source of impact upon the atmosphere is the aviation. The amount of species that are emitted by aviation engines in the atmosphere is significant less (a factor about 40-50) then emission from surface sources. But so as the emission of jet aircraft engines occurs in the atmospheric areas (high troposphere and low stratosphere) that is very sensible to various perturbations the problem of aviation effect on atmospheric processes and climate change has come into great importance. Number of jet engine emitted species is much enough and depends on kind of fuel and engine construction. So impact of aviation upon the atmosphere is under way through the complex of interconnected processes.

The nonequilibrium processes in combustor and in the internal flow of gas turbine engine that are responsible for environment harmful species (SOx, NOx, COx, HOx, CxHx, HSOx, HNOx and others) formation and processes that give rise various sorts of volatile and nonvolatile aerosol particles in aircraft plume were analyzed. The analysis of gaseous and aerosol atmosphere composition change including increase of surface area of sulfate stratospheric aerosol layer, polar stratospheric clouds formation, ozone depletion, and cloudiness caused by emission of aviation engines was presented.

The data of the presented studies can form a realistic base for the future toughening of the composition of the aircraft fuel and design of the aircraft engines.

"Data Mining and Data Warehousing of the Future: The Brave New World of Data Assets"

Usama Fayyad, Chief Executive Officer, digiMine (US)

Throughout the history of science, "data" has been thought of as a sacred, often rare, and certainly very personal asset. With the developments in data collection technology and the new economics of storage and computation, that view is changing dramatically. Data from the smallest investigations can easily overwhelm a large team of scientist. The scientific community and culture have not adjusted for this relatively new reality.

The value of data is no longer in "how much of it you have." In the new regime, the value is in how quickly and how effectively can the data be reduced, explored, manipulated and managed. The days of scientist serving as part-time (and some times full-time) database managers and pattern recognition experts are long gone. Today the functions of data storage, management, data mining, and data exploration and discovery are becoming the domains of the specialists. Scientists need to get used to the sometimes uncomfortable reality that they can no longer be as close to the data as they like to be. The new economics dictate a whole new way of thinking about data systems and services for warehousing, summarizing, exploring, and modeling data.

This talk will focus primarily on data mining technology. The main focus is on making data mining pervasive and as convenient to use as any other tool available for users to exploit. As part of covering what data mining is and where the challenges are, this talk will also cover the basics of the challenges of data warehousing, data exploration, and the basic techniques of data mining. Example applications from the science and commercial domains will be used to motivate presentation. we emphasize issues of integrating data mining in commercial database systems, scaling algorithms to large databases, and making models and data easier to explore and interpret.

"Reconstruction of Climate in China from Historical Documents"

Ge Quansheng1, Zhang Peiyuan1, Zheng Jingyun1 and Wei-Chyung Wang2
(1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101, Beijing, China. 2. Atmospheric Sciences Research Center, State University of New York, Albany, NY12203, USA)

As one country with long history of civilization, China has a wealth of collection of ancient literatures containing enormous climatic information. Large amounts of data have been extracted from a variety of sources including gazettes, official history, literature, personal diaries, and the archives in Qing Dynasty (1764-1911) and Republic of China (1912-1949). These data can be classified into four kinds, i.e., systematically observational data, abnormal weather phenomena (such as flood, drought, frost, snow and hail, etc), physical geographical records, and phenological records. There are six steps for the procedure of climatic reconstruction. (1) Extraction of source data; (2) Setup of index system, including source references (e.g., original information about the position of reporter, the time and place of report), the time, place, characteristics, and influences of climate events, such as flood and (or) drought; (3) Level of reliability check; (4) Data digitizing such as grading; (5) Data calibration; and (6) Reconstruction and analyses of proxy data series. The efforts on climate reconstruction systematically using the historical documents in China has resulted in the compilation of series of proxy databases which can trace back from centuries to thousands of years ago.

Key words: reconstruction of climate, historical documents, proxy data, China

"Databases and Design: Discovering New Ideas in Old Facts"

Shuichi Iwata, Director, RACE Institute, University of Tokyo (Japan)

"The Role of Data and Information in Modern Industrial Research"

Philip Loftus, Vice President and Director, Glaxo Wellcome R&D (US)


"The New Knowledge Paradigm: How Information is Changing Communication"

Dave Snowden, Knowledge Management, IBM (UK)

"The Universal Tree of Life and the Origin of Eukaryotes -
Will genomics get to its roots?"

Mitchell L. Sogin, Director
Josephine Bay Paul Center for Comparative Molecular Biology and Evolution
The Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole
7 MBL Street, Woods Hole MA 02543 US
Phone: 508-289-7246
Fax: 508-457-4727

Answers to the questions Where did we come from? and How did we get here? are inextricably tied to understanding the evolutionary history of the microbial world. Molecular systematics have profoundly impacted our perspective of prokaryote and protist evolution. Based upon the "gold standard," ribosomal RNAs, we now recognize two major prokaryotic kingdoms, the Archaea and the Bacteria. The Eukaryotes can no longer be described in terms of plants, animals, fungi and protists. There are at least six or seven complex evolutionary assemblages that diverged nearly simultaneously and relatively late in the evolutionary history of eukaryotes. A series of independent diverging protist lineages precede the eukaryotic "crown groups" with the most basal branches (diplomonads, trichomonads and microsporidia) lacking mitochondria. The absence of mitochondria in basal eukaryotic lineages suggests the nucleus evolved prior to the acquisition of ancestral endosymbionts of mitochondria, and studies of ancient gene duplications point towards an archaebacterial origin of eukaryotic organization. More than any other gene family, analyses of rRNAs seem to cluster organisms recognized as being related based upon alternative biological criteria. Yet more recent phylogenetic gene surveys and characterizations of entire genome sequences challenge conclusions based upon the rRNA universal phylogenies. For example, surveys of tubulins, actins, and polymerases identify microsporidia as members of the fungi. The discovery of genes that code for mitochondrial-like proteins in basal eukaryotes lineages suggest that mitochondria may have been present in the first eukaryotes. We are beginning to realize that eukaryotic genome evolution is far more complex and difficult to interpret. Perhaps differences between the rDNA trees and an ever increasing number of discordent phylogeneis arises from greater frequency of lateral gene transfer than might be expected of eukaryotes. Indeed, initial data from genome surveys of amitochondrial eukaryotes suggest that lateral gene transfer between distantly related euakaryotes is relatively common.


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This page last updated September 21, 2005